High firing temperatures can shorten product life; an appropriate thermal management strategy can mitigate detrimental effects. Optimal control and placement of cooling air requires detailed knowledge of the flow field around hot components, with the ability to accurately predict stress, vibration, heat transfer and temperature — inputs required for accurate life prediction. All must be available over a broad operating range, including startup and shutdown conditions.
Reduced carbon emissions call for higher machine efficiency, often demanding higher firing temperatures. Combustor designers must generate and manage these temperatures while minimizing other emissions, including NOx, SOx, soot and unburned hydrocarbons, across a broad operating range. The downstream turbine requires a well-mixed flow stream, without hot streaks that could damage blades.
Thermal simulation is increasing in importance as the trend to higher temperatures and pressures continues. To improve reliability, designers must account for interactions between heat loads and solid components to better optimize product performance while protecting it against real-life failure modes. Thermal mechanical analysis is necessary for accurate prediction of life, as well as machine safety and reliability.
Combustor simulation is an essential element of the gas turbine and aircraft engine design process. It starts with aerodynamic simulation to accurately determine flow splits, pressure drops, mixing and cooling. High-fidelity combustion simulation is required to determine temperatures, combustion patterns, flame position, products of combustion, outlet pattern factor as well as provide a detailed emissions prediction. Geometries are complex and mesh size may be very large, particularly for Large Eddy Simulation (LES) cases.
Rotordynamics simulation is important to all machine types and is an essential element of turbine design, compressor design etc. It accounts for fluid, mechanical and rotational loading on rotating components, as well as their interactions with the supporting structure.
Aeromechanics simulation is essential to the development of high performance turbomachinery blading. It accounts for the complex interactions between the fluid and the bladed components for all turbomachinery types. It is particularly important to the compressor design or turbine design process. The objective is to better optimize product performance while protecting it against real-life failure modes to improve machine safety and reliability. The safe operating range of the machine is determined by simulation across the full machine operating map.
Efficiency, operational flexibility and reliability are critical parameters for hydraulic machinery of all types. A modern water turbine design must offer very high efficiency, as the equipment is now expected to operate over an increased operating range and to cycle more frequently. Requirements are similar for pump design, as well as for vehicle torque converters and marine liquid propulsion systems, including propellers.
The flow path, with stationary and rotating blade rows and interconnecting spacing and ducting, is the heart of any turbomachine. To a large extent, its design establishes machine efficiency and power. Achieving the optimal flow path design is no simple task, given the myriad of conflicting requirements of turbomachinery design. But the availability of advanced flow path software from Ansys helps improve compressor and turbine efficiency, reduce fuel burn, improve machine safety and extend machine operating range and map width.
Demands for low power consumption and high reliability require usage of the best high fidelity simulation tools within the compressor design process. These requirements span automotive, chemical process, oil and gas, and HVAC applications, and apply to compressors, blowers, fans and turbochargers.